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Exploding Head Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes & Treatments

Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a disorder characterized by the perception of loud noises (e.g. a bomb explosion, gunshot or cymbal crash) when going to sleep or awakening. Contrary to the name, ENS is not associated with pain. However the noise attacks can elicit a great deal of fear, confusion and distress in sufferers. Reports of tachycardia and palpitations are also common. Despite the distressing nature of EHS, relatively little is known about the prevalence and underlying cause of the condition. Some scientists have estimated that EHS may affect 10% of the population. Females tend to be more at risk than males and the average age of onset is 50 years old.

What Causes Exploding Head Syndrome?

There are various theories as to what might cause Exploding Head Syndrome. For instance, some scientists have speculated that Exploding Head Syndrome may be associated with minor temporal lobe seizures. Another theory is that EHS is caused by sudden shifts of middle ear components. Other possible causes include stress/anxiety, impairments in calcium signalling and brainstem neuronal dysfunction. (1)

Because of the benign nature of Exploding Head Syndrome, many individuals do not require medical treatment. However if an individual is suffering from disturbed sleep or considerable distress as a consequence of EHS, then treatment may be necessary. Tricyclic antidepressants have been proven useful in some individuals. Calcium channel blockers may also be beneficial. Non-pharmacological strategies such as relaxation, improved sleep hygiene and counseling may also help to alleviate symptoms.

More on Exploding Head Syndrome: 

Exploding head syndrome is a rare and relatively undocumented parasomnia event in which the subject experiences a loud bang similar to a bomb exploding, a gun going off, a clash of cymbals or any other form of loud, indecipherable noise that seems to originate from inside the head. Contrary to the name, exploding head syndrome has no elements of pain, swelling or any other physical trait associated with it. They may be perceived as having bright flashes of light accompanying them, or result in shortness of breath, though this is likely caused by the increased heart rate of the subject after experiencing it. (2) It most often occurs just before deep sleep, and sometimes upon coming out of deep sleep.

Attacks can increase or decrease with time, and can disappear for long stretches at a time, or entirely, of their own volition. Subjects often feel fear or distress after the incident.

Who Gets Exploding Head Syndrome

People over the age of 50 are most likely to experience exploding head syndrome. Women are at a higher rate of experiencing it than men. It has been reported in people as young as 10 years old. (3)

Exploding head syndrome is thought to be highly connected with stress and extreme fatigue in most individuals. What actually causes the sensation in individuals is still unknown, though speculation of possible sources includes minor seizures affecting the temporal lobe, or sudden shifts in middle ear components.

How to Treat Exploding Head Syndrome exploding head syndrome (EHS)

As exploding head syndrome is not dangerous, and does not have a drastic effect on sleep, many individuals do seek help for their symptoms. It will first be necessary to consult with a sleep doctor regarding your sleep and medical history to ensure that what the individual is experiencing is actually exploding head syndrome and not something else. Similar experiences have been known to be brought on by certain medications or drugs. Exploding Head Syndrome may lead to secondary insomnia.

One medication that has been used to treat exploding head syndrome is clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. (4)

If stress is causing the episodes, it is advised to either seek to clear the problem. This could include reading, yoga, relaxing music or a hot bath before bed. These steps have also demonstrated to have positive effects in achieving quality sleep in general.

If the disturbances are the result of sleep deprivation, it is recommended to institute a more balanced routine that includes a minimum of 6 hours of sleep per night. If sleep deprivation is being caused by other sleep related disorders, these should be evaluated.


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154 comments on “Exploding Head Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes & Treatments”

  1. use wax good earplugs when you go to sleep. It will make a difference. go to a swimming pool and get into the water gently. then go to the deep side of the pool and slowly submerge yourself. try to check if you can get past ten feet deep. you might experience severe pain on one side of your head.

  2. Oh Gosh... I'm a 25 years old male and I experienced this two nights ago. I laid down to sleep and a few minutes later when I'm already relaxed and not really thinking or feeling anything, POOOW! A Loud, quick bang, maybe as quick as a blink. At that very moment I lifted my head slightly, confused, I was sure the noise came right from the center of my brain so I was just waiting if there was going to be any pain, any sensation at all, nothing. I then started thinking "Okay, something wrong just happened, let's try moving my toes, now my feet, legs, arms are moving fine, alright I'm fine."
    A big sigh later, went back trying to sleep, still wondering though it didn't take long to fall asleep again.
    Veery curious... I had no idea this was a thing, and that there's so little information on it.
    Anyway thank god for the internet.

  3. I’m not sure if I am experiencing the same problem. It only happens if I have a nap which I rarely do because this is the most frightening experience ever. I am sure that I am having heart attack or seizure. My body freezes and everything goes numb. There is buzzing sensation in my ears and I fight the desire to give into the sensation of being pulled somewhere I don’t want to go and I’m sure that this is it, times up. I can’t move or speak until I manage to become wide awake. I feel wretched afterwards. It has happened 4-5 times in recent years. It has never happened when I’m lying down. I have multiple sleep disorders and think there is a connection, but even parasomnia seems mild compared to these symptoms.

  4. So interesting. For many months I experienced what I thought was newspapers being delivered in the early hours. A repetitive sound, a pile of papers slamming on the road every few seconds. Or maybe like a machine noise banging reptetitively. Then I realized when I fully roused that there was NO sound, it was only in my half asleep state. Little scary until I found this syndrome. I'm sorry that for some people it's much worse and very scary!

  5. I found about EHS a couple of weeks ago, I have experienced EHS for a mumber of years (I'm 57 yoa) and it terrified me thinking war had broken out or someone letting a bomb off, sometimes I would (see) flashes at the same time.
    A fortnight ago I decided to google 'exploding head' and when it came up as something real I was instantly relieved as I read into it. It is no longer worrying but it does jolt my whole body sometimes giving me the feeling my heart has just done a restart, I do have a slight misbeat that is being investigated.
    Also someone mentioned here that She heard Her Name being called, I have heard my Name being called very clearly in a male tone to which I do answer but I never have had a response so far....

  6. As I’m falling asleep I can feel a lightness sensation in my head and sometimes my stomach. Then suddenly my breath is taken by a zap that happens in my head. Sometimes the shock sensation travels to other areas of my body. I often scream not just out of fear (because it happens so often and I’m use to it it) but to expel air from my lungs immediately gives me some sense of relief. I was glad to be diagnosed finally. Feeling uncertain and scared about it has really been bringing me down. Feeling like you are hallucinating and having your head electrocuted every night is not fun. It’s also not sexy.

  7. I started having this a few months ago and it went away,its now back and seems to be connected to a blocked right ear which i am treating with bicarbonate solution.
    It seems to me that the breakdown of earwax causes a vibration which is translated by the brain as a bang and the brain reacts not choosing a side for the source of the noise so it sounds like its in the centre of your brain.anyway thats my theory earwax breakdown.

  8. I have explosions in my head while sleeping. Happens day and night time without a nightmare. I wake up screaming. I don't know what to do anymore. I'm taking 2mg clonazepam for years and stopped having this explosions. But it started again and afraid to go back to sleep

    1. Try sleeping almost sitting up. I prop myself up with pillows. This has helped me so far. I was to the point where I would try anything rather than hearing thuds and gunshots every other night!!

  9. Hi
    Really didn't imagine there was a name for this!
    There is no pattern to my experiences but over the year's I have had loud bangs (usually just singular ones) voices including hearing my name and them most common one is the phone ringing.Interesting to read other people's experiences and to now it's not just me

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