Int J Neurosci. 1988 Oct;42(3-4):209-27.
Compound narcolepsy: sleep pattern and involution.
Smith KM, Cohen FL.
A review of studies of sleep in three-month-old infants, narcoleptics, and normal adults indicates that the sleep pattern in compound narcolepsy is in many ways involuted. Similarities in sleep onsets, REM-specific movement, REM dissociation, ambiguous sleep, nocturnal arousals, diurnal sleep-wake cycles, and relatively limited quiet-awake time are discussed as part of a global inability to inhibit state changes common to both infants and compound narcoleptics. The analogy with infant sleep patterns and results of studies of brain function in narcoleptics suggest that forebrain inhibitory processes are more important in narcoleptic symptomology than is brainstem dysfunction. Puberty and old age are critical periods for the development or exacerbation of the involuted sleep pattern. Closer study of the early development of narcoleptics and of lability of state changes in narcolepsy may aid in diagnosis and prognosis for susceptible individuals.